Dry open woodlands, barrens, and outcrops. Infrequent and local in the mountains; rare in the Piedmont. Long thought to be a strict shale-barren endemic, and still by far most common on shale substrates. In recent years, however, rare occurrences have been documented on Ridge and Valley calcareous sandstone and limestone, Blue Ridge metabasalt, and diabase and ultramafic rocks of the Piedmont.


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